Discussion for LPN/LVNs

LPN Module 8 – Precautions in Foot Care

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Module 8 Study questions

  1. Name the body fluids which are to be addressed with Standard Precautions.
  2. Name body fluids which are not addressed with Standard Precautions, and name the exception.
  3. Name and discuss prevention of the most often transferred infection of the feet.
  4. Define and discuss opportunistic infections, specific to the feet.
  5. Discuss 6 preventions of MRSA transfer.
  6. Define iatrogenic wounds and discuss two examples.
  7. Name and discuss the two major methods of infection transfer.
  8. Name and discuss the only appropriate infection control process for foot care instruments.
  9. How does a LPN/LVN prevent contracting Herpes Whitlow?
  10. List the components of a Comprehensive Infection Control Program.
  11. Discuss the implications for foot care nurses of infection control.
  12. What is the definition of intervention for nurses in your facility.
  13. Compare and contrast two main types of orthotic appliances.
  14. Define plantar fasciitis and discuss potential treatments.
  15. Discuss two precautions in strapping.
  16. Define bursitis and name two possible treatment tracks.
  17. Discuss the three stages of charcot foot.
  18. Name three points of patient education for edema.
  19. Compare and contrast two different types of onychomycosis treatments.
  20. Discuss the danger of xerosis and a possible escalation if left untreated.
  21. Name and describe the benefits of two common foot care product ingredients.

LPN Module 9 – Wound Care of the Feet for LPNs

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Module 9 Study Questions

  1. Discuss why treatment and healing of the lower extremities is different and must be more complete.
  2. Describe homeostasis and its purpose in wound healing.
  3. Discuss the differences between acute and chronic wounds and their healing.
  4. Describe the four phases of wound healing.
  5. Name the most common triad of causes for ulceration.
  6. Name the risk factors for ulceration for diabetics and discuss the causes for their having ulcers.
  7. Name and describe ten wound are assessments.
  8. Compare and contrast venous ulcers and arterial ulcers.
  9. Name six contributing factors to ulceration.
  10. Discuss the track toward amputation for a person with diabetic neuropathy.
  11. Name and describe the three causal forces of decubitus ulcers.
  12. Name and describe the four stages of pressure ulcer progression.
  13. Compare and contrast dry and wet gangrene.
  14. Discuss wound debridement techniques and their implications.
  15. Discuss offloading as a wound healing technique – why, when indicated, how best performed.
  16. Name three of the several roles an LPN/LVN can play in the foot care of their patients.

LPN Module 1 – Rationale for Best Practices in Foot Care for LPNs

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Module 1 Study Questions

  • Name four reasons the elderly may need assistance with their foot care.
  • Name and define three ways a nurse can support their patients.
  • Name and discuss the levels of care a nurse can provide in their practice.
  • Define “NPG” and state your professional oversight authority.
  • Review the three levels of care and define them for your state/NPGs.
  • Define “RFC” and name the tasks included.

LPN Module 2 – Structure and Function of the Foot for LPNs

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Module 2 Study Questions

  1. Discuss the difference between Kinesiology and Biomechanics.
  2. What is the terminal aspect of the leg and discuss two important functions.
  3. Discuss the difference between pronation and supination.
  4. Name the condition causing loss of sensation in the foot and discuss the causes of this condition.
  5. Name the three segments of the foot and the bones in each.
  6. Discuss how interactions of the body and feet can affect overall health.
  7. Name the two largest arteries in the foot and describe where they are located.
  8. Name the two largest nerves in the foot and describe their locations.
  9. Name 6 structures of the foot and discuss their function.
  10. Discuss the various joints in the foot and lower limb—function, name, potentials for dysfunction.
  11. Discuss the muscles of the foot and describe their functions.
  12. Name the largest and strongest tendon of the foot and describe its function.
  13. Name the largest ligament of the foot and describe its function.
  14. Discuss the sebaceous glands – where found, function.
  15. Discuss the sudoriferous  glands – where found, function.
  16. Define neuropathy and name a common cause.


LPN Module 3 – Disorders of the Structures of the Feet

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Module 3 Study Questions

  1. Compare and contrast biomechanics and kinesiology.
  2. Name and describe the anatomical orientations of the foot.
  3. Name the movements of raising and lowering the foot.
  4. Describe inversion and eversion.
  5. Describe pronation and discuss the effects of over-pronation.
  6. Describe supination and discuss the effects.
  7. What is the function of the Achilles Tendon and the bone where it is attached?
  8. Compare and contrast Pes Planus and Pes Cavus.
  9. Describe the Plantar Fascia, where it is and what it does.
  10. Name the largest and strongest tendon of the foot.
  11. Name the most important structures in the ball of the foot.
  12. Describe metatarsalgia and discuss its causes.
  13. Describe what has happened to the foot when there are hammertoes.
  14. Compare and contrast Hallux Valgus and Hallux Varus, symptoms and causes.
  15. What is Hallux angulation and when is it considered abnormal.
  16. Define Charcot Foot and describe early symptoms and possible causes.
  17. Describe a Heel Spur and what causes it.
  18. Describe a Mallet Toe, Morton’s Toe and a Hammer Toe.
  19. Name the bunion on the lateral of the foot and the usual cause.
  20. Discuss the appropriate application of compression garments.
  21. Name the percentage of movement that is desirable in the ROM of the Great Toe.
  22. Compare and contrast Hallux Rigidus and Hallux Limitus and their effects on the foot.
  23. Define offloading and give examples of its application.
  24. Discuss the causatives and treatment of gout.
  25. Discuss the difference(s) between Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis.
  26. Define Claudication and name a reason for it.
  27. Name five of the discussed disorders of the feet and potential interventions/treatments.
  28. Define PVD.
  29. Compare and contrast peripheral arterial disease and peripheral disease.
  30. Name 4 risk factors for PVD.
  31. Describe Diabetic Vasculopathy.
  32. Define and discuss causes for lymphedema.
  33. Describe the assessment process for lymphedema.
  34. Describe the main treatments for edema and name 3 home care activities for patients.
  35. Name 5 common autoimmune disorders.
  36. Describe and name some antigens.

LPN Module 4 – Skin and Nail Conditions in Foot Care

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Module 4 Study Questions

  1. Define homeostasis.
  2. Name some reasons for ailments of the skin.
  3. Define hyperkeratosis and name some common examples.
  4. Name and describe four specific categories of callus of the feet.
  5. Define clavi and explain why they are dangerous.
  6. Define verrucas and discuss common treatments.
  7. Discuss psoriasis, its symptoms and likely locations of outbreaks on the body.
  8. Name two types of psoriasis.
  9. Discuss four possible treatment modalities for psoriasis.
  10. Describe how blisters are formed and discuss proper treatment.
  11. Define Dermatitis and name four classifications.
  12. Define Hemosiderosis and describe the symptoms and possible treatments.
  13. Define Hyperhidrosis and name some characteristics of this condition.
  14. Discuss Tinea Pedis, the names of the different types of symptoms, the causes, symptoms and treatment, and why it is dangerous for the immunosuppressed patient.
  15. Discuss Trench Foot and its symptoms.
  16. Define Pitted Keratolysis and name some common causes.
  17. Discuss maceration and how it forms.
  18. Discuss Ring Worm and its causes and treatment.
  19. Name the types of MRSA, their development, how it jumped barriers, and why it is especially dangerous to immune-suppressed patients.
  20. Describe the development of an ulcer under a callus, how it is discovered and the treatment following discovery.
  21. Name the difference between a nail avulsion and matrixectomy and their resulting growth patterns.
  22. Describe the debridement treatment of a nail, why it is performed and with what tools.
  23. Define peripheral neuropathy and discuss the implications.
  24. Define and discuss LOPS.
  25. Name the three main causes of an ulcer.
  26. Name and describe the four stages of a Decubitus Ulcer.
  27. Describe the five grades of an ulcer and their indications.
  28. Name and discuss four risk classifications of an ulcer.
  29. Name the six most common indicators of an at-risk patient for ulceration.
  30. Name and discuss the three classifications of risk for diabetic ulceration.
  31. Name the best prevention(s) for ulcers.
  32. Discuss the development and progression of MRSA over recent years.
  33. Discuss the implications of MRSA for compromised patients.
  34. Name two common methods of MRSA transmission.
  35. What is the most neglected tool of MRSA prevention?
  36. Name the most deadly cancer and explain why that is so.
  37. Name three key pieces of information needed in staging melanoma.
  38. What is the medical term for a fungal infection of the nail?
  39. Define onycholysis and discuss its implications.
  40. Define onychomycosis and name/describe several types.
  41. What is dystrophic onychomycosis?
  42. Name risk factors and preventions for onychomycosis.
  43. What is the medical term for a yeast infection of the toenail?
  44. Discuss some common treatments for onychomycosis.
  45. Discuss some causes and treatments of onychocryptosis.
  46. List five nail pathologies and their etiologies.


LPN Module 5 – Medical Exam and Assessment of the Feet for LPNs

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Module 5 Study Questions

  1. What is the key to successful foot care and treatment?
  2. What is the function of the first assessment?
  3. List the needed equipment for a foot assessment.
  4. Why is it important to have nail polish remover available for a foot assessment?
  5. What are two functions of a curette in foot assessments?
  6. Describe the differences between/purposes of two types of “trimmers.”
  7. Name four characteristics a foot care exam table or chair should include.
  8. What does PPE stand for and name the four types required for aseptic foot care.
  9. Name three activities required to maintain the integrity of an autoclave.
  10. Name five assessment tools commonly used in foot care exams.
  11. Name five disposable items used specifically for foot care treatments.
  12. List beneficial results of early detection of foot problems.
  13. Name components of functional abilities.
  14. Why is the level of cognition important in assessment of the elderly?
  15. Name five typical changes in the foot due to age.
  16. Name three reasons for creating a foot exam routine.
  17. What are the assessment components of a Foot Exam?
  18. List four health questions relevant to foot care.
  19. Discuss OPQRST as it relates to foot care exams.
  20. Name and discuss the three sections of the Visual Assessment.
  21. Why is it important to develop professional relationships with those such as Certified Orthotics?
  22. Compare and contrast Gait Assessment without and without technology.
  23. What is pedobarpgraphy and its function?
  24. What gait abnormalities indicate neuropathy?
  25. Discuss the differences between the GARS and the GARS-M.
  26. Discuss the four evaluative risk classifications that must be established at the first foot exam appointment:
    1. Wound classification (if present)
    2. Infection classification
    3. Ulcer classification
    4. Risk of ulcer potential
  27. Discuss strategies for both prevention of and treatment of ulcers.
  28. Discuss the most common triad of causes that interact and ultimately may result in ulceration.
  29. How can patients reduce or prevent the development of ulcers?
  30. Discuss blanchable and non-blanchable erythema.
  31. Name the assessment that establishes the presence and degree of illness of the feet.
  32. Define and discuss the musculoskeletal assessment.
  33. Name the three types of foot shape.
  34. Discuss ROM and name a common condition found in elderly feet.
  35. Name potential complications of neuropathy.
  36. Discuss what the acronym LOPS stands for and the implications for health.
  37. What does LEAP stand for and what does it do?
  38. Name and describe two types of edema.
  39. Describe the assessment for edema.
  40. Describe the assessment for capillary refill.
  41. Discuss what blood vessels are affected in PAD and how they are assessed.
  42. What are the symptoms/signs of venous insufficiency?
  43. What does a temperature differential indicate for the feet?
  44. Discuss the implications of diabetes for foot health.
  45. Describe and discuss the Nutritional Assessment.
  46. Discuss malnutrition and the implications for foot health.


LPN Module 6 – Diabetic Foot Exams and LEAP for LPNs

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Module 6 Study Questions

  1. Discuss the differences in appointment for an Initial Foot Exam, a CDFE and an RFC.
  2. Name five components of CDFEs.
  3. Name the four assessments that are always completed during CDFE.
  4. Discuss why consistency is important in performing CDFE for each patient.
  5. Name the three principle assessment tasks involved in CDFEs.
  6. Discuss the desired affect classification of ulcers and ulcer potential has on foot care.
  7. Name the four risk classifications made on every CDFE appointment.
  8. List the three components of the “Rule of 50.”
  9. Discuss the differences between patients who are diabetic and non-diabetic in context of lower extremity amputations.
  10. List the three components of the “Rule of 15.”
  11. List the five activities of the LEAP Program.
  12. Name eight evaluations of LEAP.
  13. Name and discuss the four risk categories established by LEAP exams.


LPN Module 7 – Routine Foot Care and Interventions for LPNs

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Module 7 Study Questions

  1. Name the main tasks of Routine Foot Care as defined by Medicare.
  2. Name four deterrents for patient self-care of their feet.
  3. Discuss the considerations for when a patient appointed for RFC presents with a complication.
  4. Name and describe the materials required for an RFC procedure.
  5. Name the four components of Nail Care in RFC appointments.
  6. Name the six components of Skin Care in RFC.
  7. Name two additional components of an RFC appointment.
  8. Describe “toe flossing” and give two reasons for its implementation in RFC.
  9. Define curettage and describe how it is performed.
  10. Discuss the two types of debridement commonly performed in RFC.
  11. Discuss the proper instrument and its use for trimming toenails.
  12. Name 4 post-treatment activities at an RFC appointment.
  13. Name at least 5 common interventions for nurses in regard to foot care.
  14. Compare and contrast two different types of orthotics.
  15. Discuss three possible interventions for plantar fasciitis.
  16. Discuss the treatment of charcot foot.
  17. Discuss the treatment of xerosis.
  18. Discuss 3 key ingredients used in therapeutic skin care products.

Clinical Practices in Foot care for LPNs

LPN/LVN Foot Care Program

Online Foot Care Training for LPNs and LVNs

– Boost your career with new skills and training

  • It provides foot care training for LPNS or LVNs who work with at-risk patients
  • It consists of an introduction and rationale plus nine topics written specifically for the training of LPNs or LVNs
  • It is available entirely online–no travel expense or time away from your job or home
  • It can be taken at your convenience–any time or any place a computer and internet access are available
  • Provides 12 Contact Hours of continuing education

The Role of the Licensed Practical Nurse/Vocational Nurse

is such that health care assigns them first contact with patients during daily care. They become their patients’ first line of defense against advancing infections or conditions, so foot care training is important for this nurse in many workplace settings:

Foot Care of the Elderly

Many of the elderly suffer from chronic conditions and illnesses which require special care of the patient’s feet to prevent infections and to prevent or interrupt the track toward amputation and death. The LPN/LVN trained through this program can provide this preventive care.

Hospital Stay Foot Care

Ulcers on the feet and legs of med-surg patients can progress from no symptoms to needing acute wound care in as little as 48 hours. These patients benefit from an LPN/LVN’s training in the prevention and care of ulcers on the feet and legs.

Long Term Care Facility Foot Care

LPNs/LVNs in this setting must know foot care for performance of daily inspection and care of these patients to prevent progression to the need for acute care. Good foot care can reduce suffering and potential morbidity of these patients.

Podiatry Offices and Diabetic Foot Care Clinics

Only 17,000 podiatrists provide foot care to the burgeoning population of diabetics and elderly in the US. Foot care-trained LPNs/LVNs can lighten the load for podiatrists and physicians by assisting in med-surg care and increasing patient treatment numbers in the offices/clinics.

Home Care Nurses

Training in foot care is a very important in serving home-bound patients as no, or poor, foot care can cause ulcers and other serious infections. An LPN/LVN that is trained in foot care can legally perform routine foot care, such as nail trimming in this setting. This is important care for their patients.